One Thing Leads To Another

Chris Marker, Stopover In Dubai, (2011)

“[Chris Marker’s] late short video Stopover in Dubai is the most minimal effective gesture: it’s the film produced by the Dubai State Security service, of found CCTV footage tracking the assassins on their way to kill Mahmoud al-Mabhouh in his hotel room. All Marker has done is change the soundtrack, adding the first three movements of Henryk Górecki’s ‘String Quartet No. 3’: the dark adagio as the team assembles, drifting in and out of shopping centres; the profound gloom of the second movement, as the circle inexorably closes and the doomed man goes to his hotel room under the watchful eye of the surveillance group; and the escalating frenzy of the allegro as the work is done and the killers scatter.” From Chris Marker’s obituary in Radical Philosophy November/December 2012.

Emily Jacir Europa at Whitechapel Gallery

“Winner of a Golden Lion at the 2007 Venice Biennale, Material for a film (2004–ongoing) is a large-scale, immersive installation based on the life of Palestinian writer Wael Zuaiter who was assassinated near his home in Rome by Israeli Mossad agents in 1972. Jacir reimagines chapters of Zuaiter’s life through materials unearthed by the artist including family photographs, correspondence and documents relating to his death.” From the catalogue accompanying Emily Jacir’s solo exhibition at Whitechapel Gallery, London.

EmilyJacirPhoto“Wael Zwaiter / وائل زعيتر‎ ( 2 January 1934 – 16 October 1972) was a Palestinian translator assassinated as the first target of Israel’s Operation Wrath of God campaign following the 1972 massacre at the Munich Olympics. Israel considered Zwaiter a terrorist for his role in the Black September Group, while his supporters argue that he was “never conclusively linked” with Black September or the Munich massacre and was killed in retribution…[more here]” Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Eric Baudelaire, The Anabasis of May and Fusako Shigenobu, Masao Adachi and 27 years without images, (2011)

Trailer for Eric Baudelaire‘s film The Anabasis of May and Fusako Shigenobu, Masao Adachi and 27 Years without Images (2011)

“Who are May and Fusako Shigenobu? Fusako — leader of an extremist left-wing faction, the Japanese Red Army, involved in a number of terrorist operations — has been in hiding in Beirut for almost 30 years. May, her daughter, born in Lebanon, only discovered Japan at the age of twenty-seven, after her mother’s arrest in 2000. And Masao Adachi? A screenwriter and radical activist filmmaker, committed to armed struggle and the Palestinian cause, was also underground in Lebanon for several decades before being sent back to his native country. In his years as a film director, he had been one of the instigators of a ‘theory of landscape’ — fukeiron: through filming landscapes, Adachi sought to reveal the structures of oppression that underpin and perpetuate the political system. Anabasis? The name given, since Xenophon, to wandering, circuitous homeward journeys.

“It is this complicated, dark, and always suspenseful story that Eric Baudelaire — an artist renowned for using photography as a means of questioning the staging of reality — chose to bring forth using the documentary format. Filmed on Super 8 mm, and in the manner of fukeiron, contemporary panoramas of Tokyo and Beirut are blended in with archival footage, TV clips and film excerpts as backdrop for May and Adachi’s voices and memories. They speak of everyday life, of being a little girl in hiding, of exile, politics and cinema, and their fascinating overlap. All of which adds up not so much to an enquiry as a fragmented anamnesis.” Jean-Pierre Rehm (from the FID Marseille catalog).

The film is accompanied by a fascinating publication that’s available for free here from ISSUU (courtesy of Eric).

Jumana Manna – A magical substance flows into me (2015)

JM-WEB-04Courtesy Chisenhale and Jumana Manna

Jumana’s wonderful, inspiring, important new film forms the centrepiece of her first UK solo exhibition at Chisenhale, London.  The exhibition guide includes an Katie Guggenheim, Exhibitions and Events curator at Chisenhale, interviewing Jumana.

“I chose not to emphasise borders, in terms of what is Palestinian territory and what is Israel given that Lachmann’s radio programme took place before the partition of Palestine. I thought of Lachmann’s programme as radio waves spilling out across a territory, defining a certain polity, and participating in shaping the territory. In a sense, when making the film, I physically follow those waves. I follow the path of Lachmann’s research, performing the radio
waves as I travel to the different parts of the country bringing the recordings on my smart phone to where these groups live – even more segregated today than before. In this way, the structure of the work expresses both the loss of that political space –historical Palestine – but also my effort to retrieve it. This labor, and the traversal of various borders are not to idealise the period of the British Mandate, but rather to provide a space from which another Palestine can be imagined. It is part of my interest in going beyond the logic of segregation and separation. This paradigm of partition, the two-state solution that is still the prevalent one for Israel/Palestine is, I believe, no longer realistic or appropriate. It neutralises history by underestimating the pre-1948 realities, and is dysfunctional in the present conditions of the occupation. This is a big discussion, but essentially, given the increasing intertwinements – even if they are asymmetrical and devastating – resulting from the colonial expansion of
Israeli settlements in the West Bank, it is becoming increasingly impossible to imagine two separated states. Part of the decision to ignore borders in the film is also part of my interest in a long-term one-state, bi-national solution. Moreover, Israel is the only recognised state in the world that doesn’t have borders, so why would I adhere to the ones it imposes?” Jumana Manna.

The interview can be downloaded from the Chisenhale website here.

On your way back from, or on your way to, Chisenhale don’t forget to visit Emily Jacir’s exhibition at Whitechapel Gallery:


Odds & Ends VII – Feminist Origins and Body Anxiety

VDB TV – The Feminist Origins

“In April 1974, Video Data Bank co-founders Lyn Blumenthal and Kate Horsfield conducted their first interview, an in-depth conversation with art historian and curator Marcia Tucker. During the remainder of that year, Blumenthal and Horsfield went on to interview four more notable art world women: Joan Mitchell, Lucy Lippard, Agnes Martin and Ree Morton.  Seen together, these five interviews mark a seminal moment in the history of 20th Century art, a moment in which women artists were increasingly being asked to define and position their practice within the growing feminist movement… [read more and watch the interviews here].

Body Anxiety – an internet exhibition

“Body Anxiety shares the varied perspectives of artists who examine gendered embodiment, performance and self-representation on the internet. Throughout art and film history, the female body and nude has been an ongoing subject in male-authored work. More often than not, the woman’s body is capitalized on in these works while their voice is muted. From the Seventies onwards, female artists employed video and performance to reclaim their bodies from this art historical trajectory. Today, artists use the internet as a platform to create and share their own imagery. While appropriation might be a common practice in contemporary art, using the internet as gender-queer performative space allows artists to question contemporary attitudes towards femininity. In “Body Anxiety” Schrager and Chan have selected a collection of female-empowering artworks to present in one single location in hopes of reshaping pre-existing narrative of gendered appropriation… [read more and view the exhibition here]”.

“Think of sex-divided wash-rooms and fashion stores.  Public spaces are gendered spaces; the web is gendered space. Once you reveal yourself to be a female-identified user, people treat you like one. On the internet I cannot escape who I really am, I can only abandon my body.  The internet has allowed women and gender-queer people to  reinvent and explore sexual identities by sharing self-imagery that radically differ from the limited versions of femininity seen in pop culture.”  From Jennifer Chan’s essay, How We Become Objects, that accompanies the exhibition (read more here).

Courtesy of curators Jennifer Chan and Leah Schrager, and artists Alexandra Marzella, Andrea Crespo, Angela Washko, Ann Hirsch, Aurorae Parker, Endam Nihan, Erika Alexander, Faith Holland, Georges Jacotey, Hannah Black, Kate Durbin, Marie Karlberg, Mary Bond, May Waver, Nancy Leticia, Rachel Rabbit White, Leah Schrager, RaFia Santana, Randon Rosenbohm, Saoirse Wall, Victoria Campbell.

“Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour. It is the subjectively unpleasant feelings of generalised dread over anticipated events. Anxiety is not the same as fear, which is a response to a specific real or perceived immediate threat; whereas anxiety is the expectation of a future more generalised threat.  Anxiety can be appropriate, but when experienced regularly the individual may suffer from an anxiety disorder that severely impacts upon behaviour and feelings of well being.” Adapted from Wikipedia.

Courtesy of Ann Hirsch.

Shulasmith Firestone – The Dialectic of Sex: the case for feminist revolution

In this ground breaking text from 1970, Shulasmith offers a radical view of the second wave feminist movement for social equality.  Her aim is to break free from oppressive power structures set up by nature and enforced by men.  In true manifesto-style, the book’s final chapter makes four demands:

1.The freeing of women from the tyranny of their reproductive biology by every means available, and the diffusion of the childbearing and childrearing role to the society as a whole, men as well as women.

2.The full self-determination, including economic independence, of both women and children.

3.The total integration of women and children into all aspects of the larger society

4. The freedom of all women and children to do whatever they wish sexually.

The Dialectic of Sex has recently been republished by Verso.

BBC Radio 4 In Our Time on Feminism

With Dr Helena Cronin, Co-director of the Centre for the Philosophy of the Natural and Social Sciences, London School of Economics; Dr Germaine Greer, Professor of English and Comparative Studies, Warwick University.  Listen here.

Critical Perspectives on Pornography – an episodic internet essay

“As a change from single-screen films, this week’s CarrollFletcherOnscreen brings together a series of URLs that link to a selection of films, performances, texts and websites that critically reflect on pornography as an industry, as a literary and film genre and as a pervasive part of everyday life…[here].”

Thanks to Susan Sontag, Omer Fast, Joshua Cohen, Addie Wagenknecht, Ann Hirsch, Lora Hristova and Faith Holland.

Courtesy of Faith Holland.  Original video can be seen in situ here:






Odds & Ends VI – “It’s time we made a start…”

The Discovery Award – a chance to view and vote

The LOOP video art festival and art fair have established the Discovery Award “to support and recognize the recent production of videos and films by international artists through a free open call”.  The exhibition featuring the finalist projects will be included in the program of LOOP.  There’s an online video channel screening the films selected for the second stage of the competition that enables the audience to vote until 18 May for the ten works to be included in the exhibition.  The online channel can be viewed here.

Adrian Melis’ Surplus Production Line (2014)

Linea de producción por excedente exploring the shifting politics of labour within the framework of neo-liberalism, in which employees and job-seekers are forced into harsh competition with each other and alienating them from their personal feelings. Melis started a private company in Amsterdam…[read more here].”

Courtesy of Adrian’s vimeo site here (thanks to the Discovery Award for drawing the film to our attention).

Harun Farocki ‘On The Documentary’

We documentarians often make Direct Cinema films. We look for events that occur as if they had been staged for a film. At the same time, we have to prove that we have found something and recorded it without writing or staging it. We might montage a sentence without the first words, or film a door half open—preferably not due to constraint, but to calculation.” Harun Farocki, read more here.

Thanks to e-flux and Trafic.

JJ Charlesworth on Why Art World Hypocrisy Stars at the 56th Venice Biennale

A polemic worth reading and discussing.

“What the Biennale doesn’t want to investigate is the mystery of its own creation. Why should it? Who really needs this vast moot for an increasingly homogenous and international style of slightly-political, issues-based art? Not the visiting public, for sure–we’ll look at anything, but we’re not the ones making it happen. No, who really needs it is the new global class of cultural entrepreneurs for which art has become a truly international opportunity, as the emerging economic regions seek to assert themselves on the world stage through the vehicle of the new global art culture. But however political these curators and artists think themselves, the art itself changes absolutely nothing. The Chinese still need oil, the European Union still shuts the door on immigrants, Libyans still drown in ships sinking in sight of the coast of Italy–little more than subject matter for yet more self-regarding political art.” J J Charlesworth, read more here.

Thanks to ArtNet.

A Few Post-UK Elections reflections from Marx

“Where it has come to power the bourgeoisie has obliterated all relations that were feudal, patriarchal, idyllic.  It has pitilessly severed the motley bonds of feudalism that joined men to their natural superiors, and has left intact no other bond between one man and another than naked self-interest, unfeeling ‘hard cash’.  It has drowned the ecstasies of religious fervour, of zealous chivalry, of philistine sentiment in the icy waters of egoistic calculation.  It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of countless attested and hard-won freedoms it has established a single freedom – conscienceless free trade.  In a word, for exploitation cloaked by religious and political illusions, it has substituted unashamed, direct, brutal exploitation.” Marx and Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party.
“Philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways, the point is to change it.” Marx, Early Political Writings.

And from Simon Critchley – “It is time we made a start”

“No revolution is going to be generated out of systemic or structural laws.  We are on our own and what we do we have to do for ourselves.  Politics requires subjective invention, imagination and endurance, not to mention tenacity and cunning.  No ontology or eschatological philosophy of history is going to it for us.  Working at an interstitial distance from the state a distance that I have tried to describe as democratic, we need to construct political subjectivities that are not arbitrary or relativistic, but which are articulations of an ethical demand whose scope is universal and whose evidence is faced in a concrete situtation.  This is dirty, detailed, local, practical and largely unthrilling work.  It is time we made a start.”  Simon Critchley, Infinitely Demanding – Ethics of Commitment, Politics of Resistance, p.132.

Karen Mirza, Brad Butler’s Everything for Everyone and Nothing for Us (2014)

Everything for Everyone and Nothing for Us is set in a TV studio, where a protester-in-training listens to audio extracts from a political speech by Margaret Thatcher. Having absorbed the sounds, the protester uses movement to exorcise Thatcher’s voice, retraining the body to resist capitalism.” Brad Butler.

Courtesy of Karen and Brad’s vimeo site here (thanks to the Discovery Award for drawing the film to our attention).



A Short Interview with Jean-Paul Kelly

jean p

Following our recent screening of Jean-Paul’s film A Minimal Difference (more about the screening can be found in the Past Screenings section here), we asked Jean-Paul a few questions linked to the work:

You often use found photographic and cinematic material in your work, A Minimal Difference features press images of the barricades from political protests in Bangkok, bodies piled-up after the 2010 Haitian earthquake, furniture from an eviction in Cleveland, and destruction in Gaza.  What prompted you to use these particular images and do you see links between them?

My selection of sources, whether found or self-made or self-recorded, is rather intuitive, usually based on subjective sense. Unlike a journalist or an academic, I am not directed by a prescribed code of ethics or peer-review, per se, but can, and must, as an artist, adhere to what is ‘felt’ in forming the logic of the work I make. I think of this ‘sense’ as emerging from and pointing to the ongoing, agitated space between the source photograph (in this case) as a material, inclusive of its symbolic and geopolitical content, that is, as Kantian noumenon, and my experience of it as phenomenon. In my work I am usually ‘working-through’ an understanding of what this is: I am trying to analyse what drives my compulsion to certain photographs or videos or films and part of this investigation comes through making connections between them – content-based, formal, or more idiosyncratic connections – and abstracting those particularities so that I can make sense. It is both a mental and very physical exercise.

The specific photographs used as a source for the gouache and ink cells in A Minimal Difference, when studied, all employ a similar geometric composition; using a more or less central horizon-line and vanishing point that usurps the content of the picture – the people and objects depicted –t o become the subject itself, as such. I am compelled by the use of these visual strategies in the collaboration between photographer and photo-editor and how it lays-bare their processes of construction, selection, delimitation, and dispersion. Through these special compartmentalisations, made visible by the designs of the photographer and their editorial counterpart, the photograph presents as material and an experience of that material – rather than merely an experience of its content. My translation of these editorial choices into another artistic form with graphic lines and colours subjected to optical layering, motion, and durational augmentation exacerbates the artifice of the photograph: the treatment of these receding vistas –o f stone and tire barriers, corpses, furniture, and rubble – attest to the difficult relationship we have with ethics and aesthetics and its tactical, political articulation of the sublime toward catharsis and possible action. In these seemingly endless piles a monumental vastness replaces any sense of singularity – no one log amongst logs, no lone body in the mass grave – but only by surrendering to a constrained position of individual vision. My use of the multi-plane camera and its illusions to the errors of vision is directed by this dialectic.

A Minimal Difference also features more metaphoric pictures, amongst others, a logjam, clouds, and smoke.  What prompted you to use these particular images, do you see links between them and with the images taken from the press?

As a counterpoint to the cells that reference photojournalism in conflict zones, these non-indexically sourced sections suggest more amorphous restrictions of vision and movement: like being in a jam or a haze. In this more personal, existential sense they are representative of the continuousness of the dialectic between the material and its experience–like the possible events occurring in the time that passes between wood being cut and burnt into nothingness.

Your use of abstract monotone images – squares, cones, spheres, etc. – often leads to (separate) discussions of Modernism and indexicality.  Whilst these discussions are productive (and part of the richness of your work), it seems that you’re also, perhaps primarily, engaged in something akin to detournement, to Brechtian alienation to call us to question modes of representation and the role of the image.  Is this correct?

Yes, the abstraction that occurs is two-fold: of course, the artifice of the figurative and representational tableaux is highlighted by the intersecting regular shapes and their colours, but an equal and opposite perspectival shift occurs to the square, circle, rectangle, and triangle, an experiential shift, akin to the parallax errors of the multi-plane camera, where the ethical implications of the original source material – and the sense that brought me to them – infects the shapes. In part, I am seeking to understand how non-objective elements like colour, shape, duration, and sound can hold the ethics, desires, and sense that resonate within real-world document – photojournalism, documentaries, on-line image streams, etc.

Do you hope that viewers will reassess, see afresh the events underlying the source materials?

Viewers will make their own sense from watching the work. To envision a possible reassessment of the source material would not dignify the exciting potentials of artifice and misreading (mine and yours), repeating the error of documentary photojournalism strategies, and those of photo-conceptualism and a great deal of research-based film and video, that often conceal – or worse, expose only to righteously disparage – aesthetic-narrative tactics. I only hope that the experience of seeing A Minimal Difference is a meaningful one.


Blessed Blessed Oblivion

Inspired by Kenneth Anger’s Scorpio Rising (1964), Jumana Manna’s BLESSED BLESSED OBLIVION (HD video, 21:00 min, 2010) is set in the car-body and barbers shops, body building gyms and car-washes of East Jerusalem, the artist’s home-town. The film weaves together a sensual portrait of male thug culture that reveals the pious rituals and male codes of honour, which mask narcissism and a disdain for and casual violence towards women, and, thus, suggests alternative zones of conflict within the Palestinian struggle.

“What makes her work not only captivating but brave is that she deliberately complicates the accepted—or expected—histories of places and people, revealing the contradictions they suppress.”  Kaelen Wilson-Goldie in Artforum March 2014 (full article here courtesy of CRG Gallery, New York and Artforum).

Expanding The Archive: Jumma Manna in conversation with Sheyma Buali

“In A Sketch of Manners, as for my older works Blessed Blessed Oblivion and The Umpire Whispers, which are also filmed in Jerusalem, I wanted to bring attention to the multi-faceted social fabric of Jerusalem, and the particular kind of dark humour in the city. There is a certain mendacity in Jerusalem, as well as a certain quality of neglect, that is in contrast to the imaginary of the city as a holy, serene, ancient promised land. Religious travellers who have come here for centuries write travel logs about their experience of arriving in Jerusalem, and their subsequent disappointment at the normalcy of the ‘holy city’. Their fantastical projections are deflated when they arrive and see the poverty, the cynical businessmen selling identical souvenirs, and just the banality of daily life. I like to think that the projections of the various imaginaries of Jerusalem insert a subliminal spiritual layer in the city that you have to make an effort to tune into. It is precisely that foggy area between the melancholic mendacity and the religious fantasy of Jerusalem that I would like to capture. The frivolous characters I choose to focus on bring a perverted image of the holy city through their obsessions with artificiality, games and lies.” Jumana Manna (read the entire conversation here).

Courtesy Ibraaz, Sheyma Buali and the artist.

The Apparatus of the Game – Kate Sutton on Jamma Manna

Read here.

Courtesy Bidoun, Kate Sutton and the artist.

A fragment of The Umpire Whispers

Watch on vimeo here.


Odds & Ends V

“One protests because not to protest would be too humiliating, too diminishing, too deadly.  One protests… in order to save the present moment, whatever the future holds.” John Berger.

Jem Cohen Retrospective

A real treat programmed by Gareth Evans: the Whitechapel Gallery, Barbican and Hackney Picturehouse are presenting a film and music season for the first comprehensive UK retrospective of Brooklyn-based filmmaker Jem Cohen (b. 1962) from 31 March to 28 May 2015.  Whitechapel press release with full details here.

The season starts with a performance at the Barbican on 31 March. Tickets are selling fast here.

Whitechapel tickets here.

Hackney Picture House tickets here.

The Gravity Hill Newsreels are screening at The Whitechapel on 11 April.  Jem has a vimeo site with the films here and, as a taster, here’s Gravity Hill Newsreel No. 1:

Time and Revolution

“Every conception of history is invariably accompanied by a certain experience of time that is implicit to it, conditions it, and thereby has to be elucidated.  Similarly, every culture is first and foremost a particular experience of time, and no new culture is possible without an alteration in this experience.  The original task of a genuine revolution, therefore, is never merely to ‘change the world, but also – and above all – to change time.”

Giorgo Agamben, Infancy and History: On the Destruction of Experience (quoted by Marquand Smith in his essay to accompany the exhibition How To Construct A Time Machine at MK Gallery)


Image: Jem Cohen, Still from Gravity Hill NEWSREEL No. 2, 2011


“To make things visible. This and nothing else.” Joseph Conrad.



“The position that an epoch occupies in the historical process can be determined more strikingly from an analysis of its inconspicuous surface-level expressions than from that epoch’s judgement about itself.”

Siegfried Kracauer, The Mass Ornament

Notes on Blindness by Peter Middleton and James Spinney

A moving example of a film in which the images and the script complement each other to provide insights that neither on their own provide.

In 1983, after years of deteriorating vision, the writer and theologian John Hull lost the last traces of light sensation. For the next three years, he kept a diary on audio-cassette of his interior world of blindness.  Notes on Blindness is a dramatization that uses his original recordings.  It was commissioned by the New York Times and premiered at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival.  It won the Documentary Award at Encounters Short Film Festival.  The film and accompanying texts can be found on The New York Times website here.

“We go to poetry to be forwarded within ourselves”

Seamus Heaney, The Redress of Poetry

Jenna Sutela – New Degrees Of Freedom

Jenna’s website New Degrees Of Freedom featured as a blogpost in April 2014.  The website has been updated to include Act 3 here.

“In effect, every new link between one’s online and offline identities removes a ‘degree of freedom’…If the body cannot be emancipated online — indeed the Internet has proved to be not virtual enough — let us imagine new modes of existence in the physical world…”


 Birkbeck Institute of Moving Image – Essay Film Festival

Shame I’ll miss the Catherine Grant’s masterclass and screening on Friday 20th March 6.00-9.00pm (although I’m looking forward to being in Berlin for the Lunch Bytes conference with, amongst others Constant Dullaart, Cornelia Sollfrank, Jenna Sutella, Ben Vickers, Hito Steyerl, Melissa Gronlund and David Joselit).  Tickets can be booked here.  Dr Catherine Grant (University of Sussex) writes about and teaches media. She is well known for her video essays made of found footage. She also runs Film Studies For Free, a regularly updated web-archive of links to the best resources in moving image studies.  In March 2014, Grant became founding co-editor of [in]TRANSITION, the first ever peer-reviewed journal of videographic film and moving image studies.   Dr Grant will talk about practical aspects of essayistic film-making, its ambitions and frustrations. Her masterclass will be followed by a screening of the essay films produced in the film-making experiment.

“[literature gives] an experience that is like a foreknowledge of certain things which we already seem to be remembering.”

Seamus Heaney, The Redress of Poetry

 A slight diversion – Marina Warner in LRB “on the disfiguring of higher education”

“All this follows from the changing economics of education policy.  Cuts are the tools of the ideological decision to stop subsidising tuition and to start withdrawing from directly supporting research.  What we are in effect moving towards is the privatisation of research… [read the whole article here]”

Adorno, Minima Moralia

“The haste, nervousness, restlessness observed since the rise of the big cities is now spreading in the manner of an epidemic, as did once the plague and cholera. In the process forces are being unleashed that were undreamed of by the scurrying passer-by of the nineteenth century. Everybody must have projects all the time. The maximum must be extracted from leisure. This is planned, used for undertakings, crammed with visits to every conceivable site or spectacle, or just with the fastest possible locomotion. The shadow of all this falls on intellectual work. It is done with bad conscience, as if it had been poached from some urgent, even if only imaginary occupation. To justify itself in its own eyes it puts on a show of hectic activity performed under great pressure and shortage of time, which excludes all reflection and therefore itself. […] As here, so generally, the forms of the production process are repeated in private life, or in those areas of work exempted from these forms themselves. The whole of life must look like a job, and by this resemblance conceal what is not yet directly devoted to pecuniary gain. […] Doing things and going places is an attempt by the sensorium to set up a kind of counter-irritant against a threatening collectivization, to get in training for it by using the hours apparently left to freedom to coach oneself as a member of the mass.”